Log in

No account? Create an account

Study Sheet for Religion Final

This page is dedicated to getting an A on my Religions Final. If you're not interested in Religions, then move on, because this page will bore you.

My teacher said that every word that was italicized in the textbook will be on the test, and that there are about 120 of these words. This, is gonna be one hell of a long review....
I think I'll go by chapter... ANd by the study sheet....


Why study World religion?
Because we want to.

religion: From Latin 'religio', which refers to the fear or awe one feels in the presence of a spirit or god. Also defined as "ultimate concern".

anthropology in Religion: study of human behaviour, then guessing the early basic religions based on that.

archaeology in Religion: studying the physical remains of the past, and reconstructing the past based on the find.

Types of Religions:
Basic religions: religions of contemporary people
Religions originating in India: Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Sikhism
Religions originating in China/Japan: Taoism, Confucianism, Shinto
Religions originating in the Middle East: Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Baha'i


Ten Characteristics:

1.) Animism: 'anima' means spirit. Belief that nature is alive w/ spirits, that can be communicated with. One of the most common of human religious experience.

2.) Magic: Magicians percieve the world as being controlled by forces that can be manipulated. The magician knows his/her fiat will be done, but the priest hopes the gods will act favorably. A 'fetish' is any object used to control nature in a magical fashion (good-luck charm).

3.) Divination: The prediction of the future. A 'shaman' is one who was possessed by the spirits, and spoke their message to the group. Think 'prophets'.

4.) Taboo: certain actions must be avoided, lest the spirit world release harmful effects upon the person or group.

5.) Totems: Totemism was 1st identified by white settlers in the 18th century when they discovered the practice among Native Americans. 'totem' is a corruption of the Ojibwa word 'ototeman'. Totemism is based on the feeling of kinship that other humans have for other creatures or objects in nature. Extension of animism.

6.) Sacrifice: a gift of some sort to the spirit world. Originally, probably considered a means of feeding the residents of the spirit world (by pouring milk on the floor, etc.)

7.) Myth: In religion, DOES NOT MEAN OUT-AND-OUT FABRICATIONS. Myths are a way of thinking in pictures, rather that abstract concepts. Also called poetic truths, where almost every religion has its stories about the dealings of the gods with humans. Often used to explain the whys and hows of the world.

8.) Rituals: Also called rites, or ceremonies. Often, religious rituals re-enact mythologies.

9.) Rites of Passage: Certain rituals at key transitional points in the life of an individual. This includes birth, puberty, marriage, death. Often, these rituals involve a dramatic re-enactment of a sacred story.

10.) Ancestor Veneration: the veneration or worship of elderly or deceased members of the family. Some who do this, fear the evil the dead might do and frequently take great pains to prevent the dead from returning from their graves to harm the living.


-one of the oldest and most enduring
-emphasis on nature and personal religious experience
-hunting and farming are religious activities
-nothing was wasted
-peyote: small, spineless, carrot-shaped cactus, used for inducing visions

Vision Quest:
-to gain power at some point in life, NAs often seek visions that put them in contact w/ the spirit world.
-essentially at time of puberty, but also before hunts/wars
-form of totemism (involving animals)
-Sun Dance

-most Native Americans of today are Christians, due to strong influence
-many traditional practices and beliefs are continued even by those NAs who consider themselves devout Christians


Untrue Sterotypes:
1) Africa is a unified whole. HA. NOT.
2) land of savagery and superstition. (NOT true for ALL of Africa)

High God - created the world, and then withdrew
ORISHA- lesser deities, who intervene in running the universe
Yoruba - West African tribe in the region of Nigeria, with influence all over the world
SACRED, LIVING WATER: such as a spring or river, untreated (no chemical, boiling, or freezing) so that the spirit/power in it could survive
JOK- evil spirits that cause a peron to be ill
AJWAKA - healers that cure people of joks.


-originated around the 3rd millenium B.C.E.
-most diverse and varied of all religions; possible religious views are infinite
-no identifiable founder
'Hindu' comes from Sanskrit 'Sindhu', the name for the Indus River
-only recently have Hindus begun to actually use the name Hindu to describe their religion
-origins of Hinduism are to be found in an even more ancient animistic religion

-classical Hinduism began when migratory Aryans mingled their religion with the natives of the India region. (This Aryan has nothing to do with Nazi Aryan)
- Pre-Aryan people were highly civilized city-dwellers
-'Aryan' is Sanskrit for "the noble ones"; this word was applied to a group of migrants who moved into the Indus valley from present-day Iran. Believed to have been the first to tame horses on a wide scale (hence their "noble" name) Came in migratory waves between 1750 and 1200 B.C.E.
-RAJAS were the chieftains of the Aryans
-VARNAS were the 4 basic classes that the Aryan society began to develop into. Became basis for caste system
-KSHATRIYAS were the chieftains and warriors, near the apex of society
-VAISHYAS were commoners and merchants, subservient to the upper classes
-SHUDRAS may have been the conquered pre-Aryan people. Not considered full members of society, held the position of slaves and servants
-MANTRA is a ritual sound, word or phrase used to evoke a certain religious effect.

BRAHMINS- mostly highly regarded priests of the caste system. Expected to lead a religious life, and devote themselves to the study and practice of the Vedas.
BRAHMANAS- section of ritual materials in the Vedas (proper way to perform sacrifices, and so on)
BRAHMAN- the Upanishads assume that there is only 1 reality, the eternal, infinite, unknowable, sexless, w/out a past, present or future and totally impersonal god Brahman
BRAHMA- masculine, and refers to a distinct entity. Not to be confused w/ the neuter Brahman.

Vedic Era:
-the oldest sacred books of Hinduism are the Vedas. They are the basic source of Hindu understanding of the universe
'Veda' means "knowledge", or "sacred lore"
-4 basic Vedic books. Each of the Vedic books is made up of 4 parts; each contains a section of hymns (mantras) to the Gods.
-4th section are the Upanishads, and are made up of philosophical materials.
-Within Vedas are basic descriptions and mythology of the various Aryan and pre-Aryan gods
-Indra recieves the most attention (in the form of hymns). He is the god of thunderbolts, clouds, rain, and ruler of heaven. Remembered as the conquror of chaos.
-Agni, the god of fire, is basically regarded as the god of priests and the priest of the gods.
-Vedas also contain legendary and mythological material from early Indian life.

-Whereas the Vedas are polytheistic, the Upanishads operate from a monistic presupposition.
-MAYA is false knowledge. (all phenomenal existence is illusion arising from ignorance of the true nature of reality. Think Matrix)
-AVIDYA is ignorance
-ATMAN are living beings that are souls that are a part of the great ocean of souls that make up the Brahman. INDIVIDUALITY IS ILLUSION.
-KARMA comes from a Sanskrit word meaning "to do or act"
-SAMSARA means literally "to wander across". Indian religions believe that the life-force of an individual does no die with death, but instead "wanders across", and moves on to another time and body. Reincarnation. Thought of as a curse. Endless cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth experienced by all humans.
-MOKSHA is breaking free of the cycle of karma and samsara. In Upanishads, release is attained when there is true knowledge of the release of life.

Law of Manu:
-written at some point between 300 B.C.E. and 300 C.E.
-mainly a statement of the moral and ethical ideals of the period
-one of the basic assumptions is the varna system. The 4 classes of the varna system have divinely ordained duties (DHARMA) and must obey them only. Mobility through the classes could only be achieved through reincarnation.
-women should not love independence, and not even at home should a woman do anything independently, at ANY age. Separation from family brings bad name to family. Women are meant for children. Women are to be worshipped.
-the moral aims of the era are summed up in 10 characteristics: pleasantness, patience, control of mind, non-stealing, purity, control of the senses, intelligence, knowledge, truthfulness, and non-irritability.
-among the greatest of sins is listed "the killing of cows"

Bhagavad Gita:
- an epic poem about a great battle, within a longer epic called the Mahabharata.
-B.G. believed to have been composed between the 2nd century B.C.E. and the 3rd century C.E.
- the main character, Arjuna, contemplates the folly of the inter-family war he is about to take part of. His charioteer, Krishna, responds.
-Krishna reveals that he is the incarnation (avatar) of the god Vishnu. He has come to help mortals who are struggling. This poem reveals Vishnu as a compassionate god. He tells Arjuna that it is his duty (dharma) to fight. Vishnu thus emphasizes the importance of duty within the caste system.
-AVATAR is the incarnation of a deity.

Postclassical Hinduism:

Devotion to 3 major Gods: (Trimurti)
1) Brahma, the creator.
2) Shiva, the destroyer. God of death, destruction, disease, dance. Also of vegetable, animal, and human reproduction, and sexuality. Kali is his consort (also called Durga and Paravati) and is more terrible than Shiva. Parvati, however, is the opposite of Shiva.
3) Vishnu, the preserver and restorer. God of love, benevolence, and forgiveness. Loves to play (mainly tricks and pranks). Has appeared on earth in 9 forms. Wife is Lakshmi, aka Sri.
maybe #4) ALSO, there is Devi, the great goddess, who represents the female feminine principle in Hindu thought. Believed to be the all-pervasive energy (Sakti) of the gods, as well as slayer of demons.

Yoga System:
-views the world as a dualism and teaches that one should attampt to join the individual spirit to god, the atman, to Brahman.
-main feature of Yoga is meditation.
-one works through various stages to free the mind from anger, lust.hatred, greed, and so on.
-one learns stratches, so that bodily discomfort does not distract from when one is meditating.

-chiefly remembered for his work in bringing political and social benefits to the Indian people near the end of British rule, through a combination of religious idealism and civil disobediance.
-influenced by Hinduism, Christianity (Jesus's Sermon on the Mount), and the non-violence of Jainism
-studied attorney in England, and was on the wrong end of rascism in Africa (he was considered "colored")
-passive resistance to civil authority
-protested by fasting
-assassinated in 1948


-off-shoot of Hinduism
-founder: Mahavira (great hero), 6th century B.C.E. One of the Tirthankaras (or "crossing-builders") who forged a bridge between this life and Nirvana.
-AHIMSA is the non-injury to life.
-Mahavira taught that karma was built up in an individual as the result of activity of any sort.
-thus, the ideal goal of Jainism is to do as little as possible, escaping karma

-world is comprised of 2 substances, jiva and ajiva
-JIVA is soul; soul is life; it is eternal and valuable
-AJIVA is matter' matter is lifeless, material, and evil.
-all persons are seen as soul encased in matter.
-matter clings to the soul because of past actions (karma)
-GOAL: to liberate soul from matter
-the idea is, torturing the flesh (ajiva) lets the soul (jiva) escape, thus freeing oneself
-matter is eternal
-gods cannot help humans in their search for release, because finding release must be accomplished by the individual


-another off-shoot of Hinduism
-founder was a guy named Siddhartha of the Gautama clan, between 560-480 B.C.E.
-missionary imperative
-rejected authority of caste and Vedas. Salvation based on individual effort
-Budda simply means "Enlightened One"
TANHA is desire, thirst, craving, and must be quenched in order to schieve release. Desire causes karma
-THE MIDDLE WAY, where one should avoid extreme asceticism and extreme indulgence
SANGHA- Buddhist monastic order
-any person of any caste or sex could achieve enlightenment
-nothing in the life and teachings of the Buddha indicate that he intended to create a new religion

Four Noble Truths:
1) painful to desire
2) cause of pain is craving
3) cessation of pain is good
4) way that leads to cessation of pain: the Eightfold Path

-NIRVANA is not a synonym for heaven. It is simply the cessation of desire. basically means "extinguished" or "put out like a candle".
-Asoka put his throne behind Buddhism
-koan is literally "case study"; a riddle, tale used by Zen Masters to bring the student to sudden insight
-bodhisattva (future Buddhas) live exemplary lives, the postpone their achievement of Nirvana until such a time as all living beings can attain it. Mahayana

Mahayana Buddhism: "the expansive way"
-accept fresh and expansive interpretations of basic Buddha concepts
-Gautama more than man. Came to earth cause he loved human-kind
-many Buddhas, or enlightened people

Therevada (within Hinayana) Buddhism: "the tradition of the elders"
-closer to theoriginal teachings of the Buddha
-Monk is the ideal figure
-many Buddhas in past, many in future
-"put on the robes" rite of passage, to become a monk, at least for a short while

Zen (Japanese) or Ch'an (Chinese) Buddhism:
-part of Mahayana
-Intuitive. Enlightenment not achieved by meditation, but by a sudden flash of insight.
-began w/ a monk named Bodhidharma.
-individual matter. One cannot recieve much help. Find enlightenment through meditation and the realization that the Buddha nature is within themselves. Only Direct Insight achieves enlightenment.
-KOANS (case studies) are riddles that are to help lead to insight.

Nichiren Buddhism:
-purely Japanese
-believed all other religions were teaching falsehoods that were leading people to hell.
-this was causing Japan to suffer internal and external woes.
-hostility toward other sects
-patriotism and loyalty to Japan

Tibetan Buddhism:
-more concerned with life in the world than attainment of enlightenment
-shamans managed to stop invasion of Buddhism into Tibet for a while.... until the epidemic left.
-concern for magic as a means of coping with the problems of life
-heavy reliance on manuals (tantras)
-lama basically means "superior one". The 2 orders are the Red Hat school, and the Yellow Hat school
-Dalai Lama is the leader of the Yellow Hat group, and has essentially been the leader of Tibet, until China kicked the current one out in 1959. He has become an international spokesman for peace and human rights and has recieved the Nobel Prize.

Buddhism's message of peace and tolerance seem to fit the need of the nuclear age. It's growing.


-syncretistic nature: most Chinese have multiple religions in individuals (ex: one person can be a Taoist, Confucianist, and Buddhist at the same time)
-From earliest recorded history to 11th century B.C.E. basically polytheistic intermingled with ancestor worship
-From 11 century B.C.E. to beginning of Common Era (C.E.), Chinese became aware of one Supreme God above all other gods and spirits. Emphasis on moralitity
-From beginning of C.E. to 11th century C.E. Buddhism and Taoism develop.
-11th century to present brings about synthesis among Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism.

Yin and Yang: NOT to be confused with good and evil
-universe operated on a balance between these 2 forces.
-yin: negative force (think battery charge). Darkness, coolness, femaleness, dampness, the earth itself, the moon, shadows.
-yang: positive force. lightness, brightness, warmth, maleness, dryness, the sun.
-nature, and even events, are a combination of both forces.

-founder is Lao-tzu. Lots of mystery surrounding him.
-Tao Te Ching means "The Classic of the Way and Its Power or Virtue". Supposedly written by the founder himself. Best known of all Chinese books. Theme of the book is, all human achievements are folly, especially elaborate government.
1) The basic unity behind the universe is a mysterious and undefinable force called the Tao.
2) Life is the greatest of all possessions. Interest in prolonging life.
3) Life is to be lived simply. Ideally, live as simply and quietly as possible
4) Pomp and glory are to be despised.
-little theism in early Taoism.
-little concern for life after death.

- founder is well-known. Confucius was really named Kung. He was probably an aetheist.
-equitable social order is more important than getting together to worship gods.
- developed a system of ethics, a theory of government, and a set of personal and social goals.
-Li is variously translated as "propriety", "rites", "ceremonies", or "courtesy". Basically, it means "the course of life as it is intended to go". When society lives by li, it moves smoothly. The outward expression of the superior individual toward others.
-idealistic form of government: FEUDALISM
-jen is translated as "love", "good-ness", or "human-heartedness". Only the great sages of antiquity truly possessed Jen, but all should seek it.
-Mencius: probably aetheist. Taught that all human nature was basically good, and it is possiblee for all people to be vituous, given the proper environment. Gov based on paternalistic feudalism operated for the benefit of the people.

-loosely organized native Japan religion.
-religious form of Japanese nationalism.
-involves the Japanese in a worshipful attitude toward the beauties of the land
-includes aspects of animism and ancestor worship.
KAMI refers to the deities of heaven and earth, also referred to as the spirit that is within living beings (and mountains). Anything, person, or force that possessed superior power or was awesome in any way.
-youngest of all the Asian cultures.
-Japanese came under the influence of Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism after the 4th century C.E.
-Japan was goverened by a feudal system, so they liked Confucianism.
SAMURAI- Medieval Japanese knoghts. Idealized in the Tokugawa era, and a code of conduct established for them at that time.
-willingness to commit suicide than face dishounour.
-TORII is a distinctive Japanese archwaywhich is so inseperably connected to Shinto, that it was become known worldwide as it's symbol.
KAMI-DANA is the god-shelf in homes.
BUTSU-DAN is the Buddhism counterpart of the kami-dana.

Or so I'm told. I'm tired. Watch me fall asleep during my Final, and not wake up for the next 3 years....

Finals, Day 2

On Friday, I had my German and Science Finals. They did NOT go as well as my English and Math Finals.
In fact, my Chem Final was so bad, I was having nightmares over all the answers I got wrong. But I'll get to that later.

The fact that not a single test of mine has been multiple-choice so far, is kinda bugging me. I mean, with multiple choice, there's a 25% chance you'll get it right, if you have no idea what the answer is, or how to solve the problem (if it is a problem). But at least they give you points for showing work. You can have a completely bull-shit answer, or no answer, and they'll still give you points for the problem as long as you show work.

I shouldn't be worrying that much. Finals are only about 25% of my semester grade, and I know for certain that with York's grading policy, I will not fail that Test. Guess I'm just a worry-wort. So sue me.

Anyway, my German Final wasn't so bad. I breezed through about 8 pages of it (I don't know how long it really was, on any of the Finals, but they were pretty long....), but there was one page that I simply didn't know how to do. It was with Dative OR Accusative Prepositions, where you had to put the proper adjective according to whether the sentence was in Dat., or Acc. form. The problem was, I couldn't tell the difference. I'm serious, the sentences all looked the same. Accusative is, supposedly, figurative, while Dative is literal. That knowledge didn't help me any. On that page, though, my teacher GAVE us clues to 2 answers. Apparently, everyone in the class noticed the clues, because everyone (including me) was cheering about it after the test! Hooray for not-so-cleverly-hidden clues!

My testing schedule goes like this:
Final #1 starts at 8:30, and testing is allowed to go on for 3 hours (most people finish WAY before then). People who are finished, are allowed to leave, and do whatever they want, so long as they're back for test #2. Most of the kids just hang out, talking about how their Test went, and some played basketball and soccer.
Final #2 starts at 12:30, and Testing must stop at 3:30. Of course, some people only have one test per day, according to which tests are assigned on certain days. If you don't have a test in the morning, you can stay at home, and come to school in time for the afternoon Final. Or, if you had a Final in the morning, but not in the afternoon, then you are allowed to leave! Awesome, huh? I know you're jealous ;P
In-between the 2 finals, you have lunch, obviously. You can have it whenever you want, and technically you can have it wherever you want. There is no cafeteria at my school.

My Chem Test went badly. Sure, there were about 4 pages, where I was completely confident of the answers, and about 2 pages where I was completely confident of half of the answers. But that doesn't make me feel any better. On 2 problems, I re-wrote my answer about 4 times. I also have at least 3 completely bull-shit answers. One of those, I only showed 'work' but no answer. Didn't quite get that far. What stuck me, was trying to convert volume of water into mass, using the density of water. I didn't figure out how to do that until about 12:56 pm, at night. Fat lotta good it did me.
What really sucks, is that it took me about 3 hours to do that damn Final, and it still wasn't enough time. Ugh.

I've got to study for my World Religion and World History Finals now. May those test be infinitely better on my nerves.... In other words, please, please wish me luck (but helping me to study would be better, methinks).

German Final - Study Entry

This page is dedicated to getting an A on my German Final. If you don't want to read German notes, then move on.

note: Having (parentheses) around a letter, indicates that the letter has umlaut, AKA 2 dots over the letter.


den, einen
die, eine
die, -

Wen = whom
Was = what





dem, einem
der, einer
dem, einem
den, -

wem = to/for what?


VERBS: infinitive, english, past tense (he/she/it)

fahren, to drive, fuhr
nehmen, to take, nahm
wollen, to want, wollte
gehen, to go, ging
bekommen, to become/recieve, bekam
geben, to give, gab
faufen, to buy, kaufte
machen, to make, machte
sein, to be, war
warten, to wait, wartete
denken, to think, dachte
erz(a)hlen, to tell, erz(a)hlte
teilen, to divide/share, teilte
kontrollieren, to control, kontrollierte
zeigen, to show, zeigte
spielen, to play, spielte
verdienen, to earn, verdiente
haben, to have, hatte
lachen, to laugh, lachte
wissen, to know a fact, wusste


klug = smart
das Dorf = village
eigene = own
komisch = funny/strange
verlassen + Akk = to leave
die Erde = Earth
der Schelm/Schlingel = culprit
zufrieden = satisfied
sonst = otherwise
suchen nach + Dat = to look/search for
der B(a)ckergeselle - baker's apprentice
die Backstube = the baking room
derr Narr = fool
das Holz = wood
das Dach = roof
der Unfall = accident

die Ampel
die Bahn
der Bus
die Fahrkarte
die Haltestelle
das kleingeld
die Strassenbahn
das Tor

der Unfall = accident
schon = yes (sometimes)
na und? = so?
die Geschwindigkeitsbegrenzung = speed limit
die Landschaft = scenery
der Verkehr = traffic
schaffen es = make it (as in time)
die Stunde = hour
schneiden = cut (in front of)
die Verkehrsstockung = traffic jam
die Zeit = time

das Sonderangebot = special sale
das Kaufhaus = department store
(u)brigens = by the way
abgemacht = agreed

die ImbiBstube = snack bar
damit = here, so that
merken = notice
bestellen = order
(a)hnlich = similar
gew(u)rzt = seasoned

dieser = these, this
jeder = everyone
jener = that, those
mancher = some
solcher = such
welcher = which
alle = all
beide = both

kein = no/not
mein = mine
dein = your
sein = his
ihr = hers
sein = its
unser = ours
euer = yours
ihr = theirs
Ihr = your (formal)

Finals. Boooooooo.....

I know I haven't posted in a while. I guess I've been avoiding this site for some reason. Oh well, I just do strange stuff like that sometimes. And just a reminder, I check all my friends posts before I make my own, even if I don't comment.

Soooo. Finals are here already for my school. Thursday, Friday, Monday, Tuesday Wednesday. Today I had English and Math. I also had a Saxophone Test during lunch. Tomorrow I have German and Chemistry finals (which I REEEEEEEEAAAAAALLLLLLLLYYYYYY need to study for) and on Monday I have Religions and History Finals. I have no finals on Tuesday or Wednesday, but some people do, so I don't know what the schedule's gonna be like on those days.

crrraaaaaaaaaaaaazzzyyyyyyy. I was practically the only person in the entire school who had 3 tests today. That would be because of the Saxophone thingie. It was only 3 scales, and about 6 lines of music. It was so the teacher could see where I'm at music-wise. (He said that next year, I'm gonna be the star Sax player, since Wesley will be graduating. He was kinda' surprised when I didn't jump for joy. Well boo-hoo for him.)

My English Final was cool. I thought it was gonna be horrible, and I didn't prepare for it at ALL, because I was so focused on preparing for my Math Final. Well guess what. All it was, was to write one Essay. No multiple-choice questions at all. We got to choose between about 6 prompts. We got to write about either the short story of "Everything That Rises Must Converge" by Flannery O'Connor, or the short story of "A Very Old Man with Enormous Wings" by Gabriel Garcia Marquez, or both.
The stories were only about 5 pages long, each, and we were handed the stories 2 days before the Final, and I read them that early. It was essentially an "open-book" Final, since we had to have the stories with us (for quoting purposes) and whatever notes that we happened to have written on the pages of the stories.
The prompt I chose, was to connect religion to Garcia Marquez's story, (I didn't understand O'Connor's story at all, beyond the basic plot). I took 2 hours to write a 3-page essay on just that, when I suddenly realized the REAL connection to religion in the story, and NOT the shit I'd written down on the paper. It took me half and hour to re-write the whole thing. (It needed re-writing anyway, since I'd written it in pen, and I had a TON of mistakes)
Basically, all I did was copy the essay I'd already written, but I completely re-wrote the intro and conclusion. I also divided one paragraph into 3 paragraphs (it needed it) and I replaced the word 'religion' with 'Christianity', and that's basically all I re-wrote. I was still pretty pissed though, that I hadn't realized the underlying message earlier. Man, but the ideas that I connected between the story and Christianity are so cool, that I keep hugging myself! ;)) Obviously, my English Final went REALLY well for me. Took me a total of about 2.5 hours though. Seriously.

My math Final was not so great. I spent about 3 hours on it, mostly because I COMPLETELY blanked out on certain formulas. Thankfully, I remembered in time, unlike my Chem Test, where I got a 69 because my entire front page was blank. I absolutely could not think of the formulas for that (even after taking the re-test and getting a 97 on it, I still have a tough time with those problems). I better not have that problem on my Chem Final tomorrow... Ugghh, Chem.....

Well, anyway, gotta get studying. Not much time left.... Yikes....
I bet, after my last (emo) post, that ya'll are just dying to know how my Monday went, yeah? *Sure Mel, keep telling yourself that*
You'll be happy to know, that if there was a class dedicated to Surviving, I'd have over a 100 in that class. (Alright fine, so maybe a 90. But still, I'd be passing with flying colors!)

Pretty much the only point of this post, is to serve as the Yang to my previous Yin post. Have I talked about Yin and Yang in my LJ? Anyway, I had a test on it today. Yup, that Religions test was Cake, thanks to my staying up until 3 in the morning, studying. You know, until today, I never thought that kind of studying actually worked. But, the info was still fresh in my memory as I took my "reflection" this morning.

Oh, and No Science Quiz today! That was put off until after the break.

Also, I may not have been clear about this in my previous post, but I haven't actually taken the re-test yet. I decided to do that in stages. When I said that "I looked over my Test again", I meant that I ran through my original-and-already-graded test, checking up on the questions that I'd missed.

So, I got started on my re-test today! The retest is basically the same test, except with different numbers. Remember how I said I got a 100% on the 2nd page? That's the page I did today! The teacher was kinda' surprised that I wanted to start with page 2, but I was adamant, and got my way! (And I better get a 100 on that page, because it would suck HUGELY if I didn't).

Now the only thing I have to worry about is this French-History Test that I have ...... Tuesday......
Perhaps I should do what I did for my religions Test, and simply stay up all night studying (at this point, I'll have to. As soon as I got home today, I passed out from my lack of sleep, and therefore could not do any studying....) I'll put off the rest of the Chemistry re-test until after Thanksgiving. I have no choice; I need to study more... So, I'll get crackin'!

Only 1 more day until Thanksgiving break (at least, for me)! 5-day-weekend, here I come! Happy Early Thanksgiving everybody!

Tension. How I suffer from it.

I don't know, but it seems like there's something wrong with me. I'm getting extremely lazy, eat constantly, am up all night, asleep all day, hate life, hate myself (what's new there?) and have been really pissed off lately. I'm probably just coming down with a cold, because my throat is really sore when I wake up in the mornings, and it hurts to swallow. But CA is so cool, I can just go outside, breathe the fresher air, gaze at the beautiful view, drive to the ocean, or anyplace that I recognize from childhood, and WAH-LAH!! Instant bliss. I wish all of life's problems could be solved, simply by going to the grocery store that I remember from childhood. (It's called Trader Joe's, in case you wanted to know.)

Of course, when I say 'drive' it's only relatively speaking. I've only driven once since my first lesson. It was a Saturday morning, last Sat in fact, relatively little cars around, and I drove from my house to my grandparents house. I knew the way really well, but the car was different than the one I'd driven during my lesson. For instance, the brakes worked slower in my dad's car, and it took me awhile (and a lot of yelling from my dad's part) before I became aware of that.

Does anyone besides me have a problem when doing turns, where the end of the turn is so slow, that I'm turning at 5 mph? Incidentally, I nearly got hit about 3 times that day. But I didn't, so ha-Hah! Yay for me.....

The rest of my Saturday was pretty cool. My sis had Ballet, so my dad and I went bike-riding along the beach, from Seaside (the city) to Lover's Point in Pacific Grove (2 cities away). Lover's Point is a pretty famous spot. Some history involving some Asian lovers, or something. (hah. Now you know why I go there... Lots of Asian tourists!! ^_^) Anyway, it might sound far, but it isn't. I don't know, maybe about 6 miles, round-trip. I'll look it up later. Heck, if you really want to know, it's pretty visible on a map, but I'm sure ya'll are just as lazy as I am, and won't bother checking for me.... ;P

After biking, we went to sign-up officially at Chamisal, and become members. So, we played Tennis while we were there! (eh, my dad's getting old. We were playing for about 2 hours or so, and he was getting tired. I, on the other hand, was bursting with pent-up energy, seeing as how I never do anything at all...)

On Sunday, my sis was sick, so the ENTIRE day I accidentally spent in bed, playing computer games. Seriously, it was a complete accident. I don't normally like to waste my time like that, but time just flew amazingly fast. I'd read a story that seemed to take only about 5 min to read, and find out that 45 min had actually passed. That was too crazy for words. I completely missed out on HW, and had to do it during my free, the next morning.

Well, gotta study for World History now. Don't you just love that I do my notes at the end of my posts, so that you can skip over them? I know you appreciate it... Hghh, but you'll be interested, when you see the word 'samurai', I bet! ;)

WORLD HISTORY II: Chap 21: Northern Eurasia, 1500-1800

_Manchu - Federation of Northeast Asian peoples who founded the Qing Empire (pronounced 'Ching').

_daimyo - Literally, great name(s). Japanese warlords and great landowners, whose armed samurai gave them control of the Japanese islands from the 8th to later 19th century. Under the Tokugawa Shogunate they were subordinated to the imperial government.

_samurai - Literally "those who serve," the hereditary military elite of the Tokugawa Shogunate.

_Tokugawa Shogunate - The last of the 3 shogunates of Japan.

_Ming Empire - (1368-1644) Empire based in China that Zhu Yuanzhang established after the overthrow of the Yuan Empire. The Ming emperor Yongle sponsored the building of the Forbidden City and the voyages of Zheng He. The later years of the Ming saw a slowdown in technological development and economic decline.

_Qing Empire - Empire established in China by Manchus who overthrew the Ming Empire in 1644. At various times the Qing also controlled Manchuria, Mongolia, Turkestan, and Tibet. The last Qing emperor was overthrown in 1911.

_Kangxi - (1654-1722) Qing emperor (r. 1662-1722). He oversaw the greatest expansion of the Qing Empire.

_Amur River - This river valley was a contested frontier between northern China and eastern Russia until the settlement arranged in Treaty of Nerchinsk. (1689)

_Macartney Mission - (1792-1793) The unsuccessful attempt by the British Empire to establish diplomatic relations with the Qing Empire.

_Muscovy - Russian principality that emerged gradually during the era of Mongol domination. The Muscovite dynasty ruled without interruption from 1276 to 1598.

_Ural Mountains - This north-south range separates Siberia from the rest of Russia. It is commonly considered the boundary between the continents of Europe and Asia.

_tsar (czar) - From Latin 'caesar', this Russian title for a monarch was first used in reference to a Russian ruler by Ivan III (r. 1462-1505). The name comes from caesar, because the Russians considered themselves the 3rd Roman Empire (2nd was Constantinople).

_Siberia - the extreme northeastern section of Asia, including the Kamchatka Peninsula and the present Russian coast of the Arctic Ocean, the Bering Strait, and the Sea of Okhotsk.

_Cossacks - Peoples of the Russian Empire who lived outside the farming villages, often as herders, mercenaries, or outlaws. Cossacks led the conquest of Siberia in the 16th and 17th centuries.

_serfs - In medieval Europe, an agricultural laborer legally bound to a lord's property and obligated to perform set services for the lord. In Russia some serfs worked as artisans and in factories; serfdom was not abolished there until 1861.

_Peter the Great - (1672-1725) Russian tsar (r. 1689-1725). He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russsian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg. He sneaked over to Europe and hid himself (for some time as a ship-worker) in the Netherlands. There he learned the importance of tolerance, trade and various European technologies (including that of the military and navy). Russian was considered backwards, until he came along.

Well, that's all I feel like including. I think it's way too much, but it had to be added. I gotta quit, though, because it's already 11:34 pm, so I'll simply have to read the rest during school. Great...
I'll make this short. Not a whole lot of interesting things happened to me today.... All the interesting things happened on Fri, and the weekend. Remind me to post about that later.

Well, I have a quiz in German II and World History II. Got to study.

GERMAN: Chapter 10 (which I must memorize. Ugh) A dialog, accompanied by pics. Every new line is associated with a picture, so don't be weirded out, when a new line is started in the middle of a sentence. Letter surrounded by (parentheses) means that the letter has 2 dots over it (umlaut, indicating an accent).


Frau K(o)hler geht Einkaufen.
Ihre Tochter Inge geht mit.
Sie gehen zuerst zu Kaufmann Meyer,
dann zum B(a)cker
und zuletzt zum Fleischer.

_Der Kaufmann:
Guten Tag, Frau K(o)hler.
Was w(u)nschen Sie, bitte?

_Frau K(o)hler:
Geben Sie mir ein St(u)ck Butter!

_Der Kaufmann:
Gern. Die Butter ist ganz frisch.

Ich m(o)chte auch ein Pfund Zucker und drei Pfund Mehl.

W(u)nschen Sie noch etwas, bitte?

Ja; ein Liter (O)l, eine Dose (O)lsardinen
und zwei Dosen Milch.

Bitte sehr.

Ich brauchen auch ein P(a)ckchen Tee.

Was f(u)r Tee nehmen Sie?

Ceylontee. Wieviel kostet ein P(a)ckchen?

Ein P(a)ckchen zu 50 Gramm kostet 1,25 DM.

Das ist nicht zu teuer. Ich nehme ein P(a)ckchen.

Brauchen Sie noch etwas, bitte?

Nein, danke, Das ist alles.

Mutti, kauf mir, bitte, ein Eis,
und ich helfe dir die Sachen tragen.

Hier gibt es kein Eis.
Das essen wir nachher beim B(a)cker.
Also, Herr Meyer, wieviel macht das alles?

Alles zusammen macht 7,80 DM.
Ich schicke Ihnen alles ins Haus.
Und hier ist eine T(u)te Bonbons f(u)r die Kleine.

Danke vielmals.
Morgen komme ich wieder.

Auf Wiedersehen!

Pretty long, huh? Be glad you don't have to memorize this, unlike me.
If you wish to know what certain words mean, just ask. I can translate the whole thing, without even having to look at any notes.
You know what's sad? My German classmates don't know what some of the words mean in that dialog, and are having a hard time getting the gist of the convo. We are simply instructed to memorize it, just for working on our accent, alone. It's a good teaching skill, actually. No one who doesn't know German, would be able to pronounce ANY of this. I'm sorry to say this, but I can tell you your accent sucks, without even having to listen to you.

Hmm. I think I'll have to start another post for my History notes. Ah well.

This Fri was pretty cool. We had a lock-down drill during my World-Religions class. Which reminds me...

My World-Religions teacher said something that really struck a chord with me (it wasn't about religion... No need to freak out...). He was telling us a story about when his brother was getting married. Apparently, their father was being a worry-wort or something, so my teacher started lecturing his father, on how they can take care of themselves and don't need the father's advice anymore. Or something like that. But then the father asks, "How old is your son? Four? When are you going to stop knowing what's best for your son? When he's 18? How about 20??"

The point was, however stupid your parents little annoying lectures may sound, they do actually know more than you, because they've been around about 20 years longer than you. Your parents have experience, and just want what's best for you, however much it may seem like they're trying to repress you.

My teacher said, that the greatest mistake he ever made, was telling his son to break up with his girl-friend when he goes off to college. (Apparently, his son was planning on 'testing' the college girls, without breaking up with his high-school girlfriend). My teacher knew that this wasn't going to work out, because he knew a lot of people who did this, but the son didn't believe him. 20 years later, the son had to admit that my teacher was right, but he's still mad at my teacher for trying to tell him that.

My point is, when your parents start lecturing you, show a little patience. That means you. I know, that parents lectures might sound stupid, and you think they don't know anything you're going through. I myself believe that my parents couldn't possibly know what I'm going through, because we view life differently, and they'll never understand what it's like to be me. But the thing is, while your parents may not know EXACTLY what you're going through, they know plenty of people who have had similar experiences, or they may have been in a similar situation once. They know that things don't always work out right. They don't want you to make the same mistakes that they, or they're friends made.

I mean, think of it. If you have a kid, when are you going to stop knowing what's best for your child? When are you going to draw the line, and decide that your child doesn't need your help anymore, or your advice? Would you still try to give it? Would you watch your child go down a path that you know they won't like, and not try to step in, and give them advice?

Srry for the lecture. We were discussing the book 'Siddhartha', and the main character realized he had to let his son make his own decisions (even though those decisions were bad), after he suddenly realized that his father had tried the same exact thing, and that he himself had not liked the lectures he was now trying to give to his son.

That discussion we had in class really had a profound impact on my thoughts (as you can probably tell. But after all, teachers are paid to 'open doors' within their students minds... This one especially. I might not have mentioned this, but my World Religions teacher is also my principal). I now see my parents annoying little stupid 'talks' in a new light. From now on, I'll try to show some patience, instead of yelling "I know!" at them, and storming off. That must have been really exasperating and frustrating for them. I can kinda get why they 'sent me to my room' and all that jazz, all those times. (I'm still mad at them, though.)
Being a teen really sucks, huh? I don't know about anyone else, but as soon as I turned teen, life started going downhill. It's still plummeting, with no end in sight.

If this meant anything to anyone else, I would like to know. Please leave a comment. I'll talk about the rest of my Friday in another post.

TGIS = Thank God It's Sunday

Today was decidedly different. You'd never guess what I did today (Well, maybe. But I doubt it.) All I have to say is, Thank God (quite literally) it's a Sunday. Because the lord decreed that Sunday be a day of rest, the streets were really, really quiet and empty.

Know why this matters? I had my very first Driving lesson today. Whoop-dee-do.

None of this learning how to steer, reverse, and accelerate in a closed-off parking lot, heck no. It was straight to the streets for me. Now, I'd like some feed-back on whether this happened to anyone else, too. Where the instructor was all, "All right, I want you to take a right at the first intersection. Go on, don't be shy, man!" (After the obligatory pre-driving checklist, of course).

Yup. My mom had assured me that I wouldn't even leave the parking lot the first day, but my hopes were dashed when I saw that the parking lot was the size of my living room (which isn't all THAT big). Ho-hum. I even learned how to parallel park today. I really can't understand why everyone gets freaked out about parallel parking. It wasn't all that hard (well, I guess the fact that there was a brake in the passenger seat helped, maybe...).

My driving instructor was okay. He kept saying "You know?" a lot. Got kinda' annoying, but at least he didn't freak out about every little thing I did (he did have his brake). In fact, he even pointed out to me a fox/coyote on the side of the road, while we were coming up to a yellow intersection, causing me to go through the red light, since I wasn't sure if I was supposed to brake or not. Thank God, once again, that there were no other cars.

All-in-all, it went allright, seeing as how I was NOT looking forward to this. I have no intention what-so-ever of driving, without someone telling me what to do, for a long-ish time. Apparently somebody flipped me off, but I wasn't paying attention to that. My instructor was kind enough to point that out to me. But he was actually a pretty funny guy, and was talking constantly, which I liked. None of this 'uncomfortable silence' thing going on. I forget his name, which is just great, because he asked me to say hi to Molly for him (Molly is the captain on my Tennis team, and a driving student of his).

Well, I have my permit now. 50 hrs of driving practice, here I come. I am not looking forward to night driving. And, I get my license in April, 07 (assuming everything goes 'well').

Oh.... and did you take a look-see at my at my pic? The horse one? I'm sure it's bad quality, but that can't be helped. I drew it! It's so cool! The one I colored in is cooler, but the site refuses to upload it! I'll try again later.
Well, I've got to study now. Big test in Chem on Monday.

CHEMISTRY FORMULAS: a number in parenthesis indicates... uh... (oh, I forget)...uh... denominations. + or - followed by a number indicates charge

OH- : hydroxide
NO(3)- : nitrate
NO(2)- : nitrite
CN- : cyanide

SO(4)-2 : sulfate
SO(3)-2 : sulfite
CO(3)-2 : carbonate

H(2)SO(4) : sulfuric acid
HNO(3) : nitric acid
HCl : hydrochloric acid

HSO(4)- : hydrogen sulfate
HSO(3)- : hydrogen sulfite
HCO(3)- : hydrogen carbonate

PO(4)-3 : phosphate
HPO(4)-2: hydrogen phosphate
H(2)PO(4)- : dihydrogen phosphate

NH(4)+ : ammonium

_Ionic Compound :
Na(2)O : sodium oxide
_I.C. (Transition Metal) :
CrBr(2) : chromium (II) bromide
CrBr(3) : chromium (III) bromide
TiO(2) : titanium (IV) oxide
_Binary Covalent (non-metals)
SO(2) : sulfur dioxide
H(2)O : dihydrogen oxide
P(4)O(10) : tetraphosphorous decoxide

Grr. Must study...

You know life sucks, when you find out you were studying the wrong chapter, the day before a test. Hiisssssss.

Root Words and their meanings: (as if the English language weren't complicated enough...)

psyche - spirit, soul, mind
iatreia - medical healing
soma - body
genesis - birth, origin
pathos - suffering, disease

orthos - straight, correct
odontos - tooth
paidos (ped-) : child
-ic : adjective suffix
peri- : around, surrounding
endo- : inner, within
ex- : out
opsis, optikos - vision
metron - measurement
therme - heat
baros - weight
sphygmos - pulse
osteon - bone
pous, podos - foot
okto - eight
platys - broad, flat
-ium : place where
tri- : three, 3
cheir (chiro-) : hand
mancy - prediction

graphein - to write
kallos - beauty
-er : one wo
pyge - buttocks
kakos - bad, harsh
kardia - heart
photos - light
tele- : distance
bios - life
geras - old age
geron - old man
senex - old
-escent - growing, becoming

Note: my roots are all spelled correctly, so don't try to correct any.

What else.... I'm looking up raptor pics on the Internet, in an effort to improve my bird/wing drawings.

I also found this cool site called Elfwood, where there is a ton of Sci-Fi Art. Very interesting to look at!

I'm also trying my hand at comics. I must say, while it's a lot of fun thinking up ideas, it is no fun drawing them, 'cause my pictures never turn out the way I want them to. I have to keep using references, and I always try to draw poses that turn out to be impossible to pull off. It's really annoying. My drawing has gone all haywire...

Somebody remind me to figure out a way to upload some of my newer drawings. They're so cool! Ask about my Halloween Horse. It's the only picture I've ever drawn, that's fairly realistic, and colored in at the same time! My first! *does the happy dance*

Ok, I gotta log off now. I've got a sharp pain in my neck AND back from leaning over all day... Tomorrow I get to get up late, because I have a free first period! YYYEEEEEEESSSSSSSSS!!!!!!!!!!